Posts AWS Self Learning Part2

AWS Self Learning Part2

AWS core services - compute

  1. Core services
    • foundation to all solution
    • EC2

Computer Services Overview

  1. Computer services overview
    • EC2
    • Lambda
    • Auto scaling
    • ELB
    • Elastic beanstalk
    • PaaS service that quickly deploy, scale, manage your application * Lightsail, is PaaS * ECS - elastic container service
    • Scalable, high-performance
    • Container management service
    • Support docker container
    • Run on managed cluster of EC2 * EKS - elastic container service for kubernetes
    • Managed service
    • Provide Kubernates clusters service * Fargate
    • Technology for ECS & EKS allow user to run containers without managing servers or clusters
    • Interface to run containers on ECS & EKS
    • Not to worry / think about manage servers or cluster

Introduction to EC2

  1. EC2
    • Elastic
    • Properly pre-configured
    • Able to increase or decrease the amount according to application’s demand automatically
    • Provides IPv6 support in VPC environment
  2. AMI
    • Teplate for the root volume for the instance
    • Specify which volume to attach to the instance when launched
    • Defines the OS, initial software and state of patches that will be on an instance
  3. AMI life cycle
    • Create, automatic registered, ready for use
    • Deregister when no longer needed
    • Create EC2 with AMI
    • Can be copied within or to different regions
    • Can be transfer to other AWS account
    • Able to launch EC2 with AMI not belong to you if the owner grants you launch permission
  4. EC2 pricing
    • On demand
    • Spot instances
    • RI
    • Dedicated hosts
    • Linux & Ubuntu based instances
    • Charged by second with minimum of 60 seconds
      * Other OSs are charged by hour
    • Minimum charged is hour
  5. EC2 costs
    • On demand, spot instances, RI
    • Per second billing * Dedicated hosts
    • Per hour billing
  6. Review EC2 pricing options use cases
    • Detailed cloud watch provides seven pre-selected metrics for fixed monthly rate
  7. Spot instance hibernation
    • Hibernate EBS backed instance when interrupted
    • Resume instance when capacity is available
    • Hibernation agent required
    • Hibernated spot instance can only be resumed by spot service
    • Use encrypted EBS for root volume is recommended
    • Instance memory is stored on root volume during hibernation

EC2 Cost Optimization

  1. Cost optimization
    • Pay only for what you need and when you need
  2. Four pillars of cost optimization
    • Right-sizing
    • Process of finding opportunities to downsize the deployed resources when possible * RI-reserved instances * Elasticity * Monitor and improve
  3. Right size
    • Right size then reserve
  4. RI
    • Standard - only size can be modified during the term
    • Convertible - can be exchanged for another convertible RI instance with new attirbutes
  5. Dedicated instance
    • Isolate instance at hardware level
    • Meet BYOL model that the hardware is dedicated to one tenant
  6. RI- reserved instances
    • Fixed compute power can be used on different instances
    • Reserved a m4.large
    • 08:00 ~ 17:00, used for instance A
    • 17:00 ~ 08:00, used for instance B
    • Must be in same AZ
  7. Consolidation billing
    • Multiple AWS accounts joined benefits the discount for total volume used
  8. AWS trusted advisor
    • Provides real time guidance to help provision resources following AWS best practices
  9. AWS cost explorer
    • Free tool use to view graphs of your costs for up to the last 13 months
    • Forecast how much are likely to spend for the next three months

Introduction to lambda

  1. Lambda
    • Full managed and scales automatically service
    • High availability
    • Maximum of 5 mins
    • Even driven service
    • Charged on the times code is triggered
    • each 1/100 millisecond of exec time
    • Go, NodeJS, Java, C#, and Python

Introduction to elastic beanstalk

  1. Elastic beanstalk
    • Packer Builder, Single Container / Multicontainer or Preconfigured Docker, Go, JavaSE, Java with Tomcat, .NET on Windows Server with IIS, Node.js, PHP, Python, and Ruby
    • Apache, Nginx, Passenger, and IIS
    • is PaaS
  2. Setup elastic beanstalk
    • Choose instance type
    • Choose database type
    • Set and adjust auto scaling
    • Upload / update application
    • Access server log files
    • Enable HTTPS on ELB

AWS core services - Storage


  • EBS volumes are off-instance storage
  • Analogous(類似) to virtual disks in the cloud
  1. Temporary storage
    • Instance store or ephemeral storage
  2. Persistent storage (non volatile storage)
    • EBS (volume)
    • 99.999 % availability, about 5 minutes down time per year
    • Annual failure rate is about 0.1% to 0.2% (AFR)
    • Mountable, only to EC2 in same AZ
    • Block level storage
    • Auto replicate within its AZ
    • Backup instance into AMI and store in S3
    • Elastic volumes (change volume size when needed)
    • Off instance storage (virtual/cloud hdd)
    • Can only attach to one EC2 at one time
    • Attach directly to EC2 * S3
    • Accessible from anywhere
    • Object level storage
    • 5MB to 5 TB per object maximum
  3. Block VS Object storage
    • Block is typically faster and use less bandwidth
    • Block cost more than object
    • Block storage only modified/change the data block
    • Object storage change the whole file regardless of change size
  4. EBS volume types
    • SSD
    • General purpose (GP2)
      • Max Size: 1GB ~ 16TB
      • Max IOPS/Volume: 10,000
      • Max Throughput/Volume: 160 Mib/s
      • Max IOPS/Instance: 80,000
      • Max Throughput/Instance: 1,750MB/s
      • Performance Attribute: IOPS
    • Provisioned IOPS (IO1)
      • Max Size: 4GB ~ 16TB
      • Max IOPS/Volume: 32,000
      • Max Throughput/Volume: 500 Mib/s
      • Max IOPS/Instance: 80,000
      • Max Throughput/Instance: 1,750MB/s
      • Performance Attribute: IOPS * HDD
    • Throughput-Opt (ST1)
      • Max Size: 500GB ~ 16TB
      • Max IOPS/Volume: 500
      • Max Throughput/Volume: 500 Mib/s
      • Max IOPS/Instance: 80,000
      • Max Throughput/Instance: 1,750MB/s
      • Performance Attribute: MB/s
    • cold (SC1)
      • Max Size: 500GB ~ 16TB
      • Max IOPS: 250
      • Max Throughput: 250 Mib/s
      • Max IOPS/Instance: 80,000
      • Max Throughput/Instance: 1,750MB/s
      • Performance Attribute: MB/s
  5. EBS volume types - use case
    • Encrypted volume can only be attached to instance support types
    • SSD
    • General purpose
      • Recommended for most workloads
      • System boot volumes
      • Virtual desktops
      • Low latency interactive apps
      • Development and test environments
    • Provisioned IOPS
      • I/O intensive workloads
      • Relational DBs
      • NoSQL DBs * HDD
    • Throughput-Opt
      • Streaming workloads requiring consistent, fast Throughput at a low price
      • Big data
      • Data warehouses
      • Log processing
      • Cannot be a boot volume
    • cold
      • Throughput-oriented storage for large volumes of data that’s infrequently accessed
      • Scenarios where the lowest storage cost is important
      • Cannot be a boot volume
  6. Snapshot
    • Incremental backups
    • Point in time
    • Encrypted (volume) at no cost
    • Copy or share between regions
    • Image stored at S3, charge at per GB per month
    • Snapshot transfer to S3 cost money?
    • Volume size or used data size store in S3?
    • Only used data size is store in S3 * Only pay for incremental pieces, not the full storage * Data is lazily loaded in the background to volume when creating from snapshot
    • Meaning volume is available right away but data is put into volume from snapshot at S3 when needed
  7. EBS charges
    • By the amount provisioned per month
    • By second, 60 seconds minimum
    • Boot volume
    • General purpose SSD
      • By the amount provision in GB per month
    • Magnetic
      • By the number of request to volume
    • Provisioned IOPS SSD
      • By the amount of IOPS provisioned (% of day / month used) * Extra volume
    • Above plus
      • Throughput Optimized HDD
      • Cold HDD


  1. S3
    • Object level storage
    • Store data in bucket
    • Re-upload the entire modified file if just changed a part of a file
    • Support cross-region replication, need to enable versioning first
  2. Peview
    • Fully managed, scale seamlessly
    • Eleven 9s of durability, data stored redundantly
    • Bucket name must be universal unique
    • Object upload or delete can trigger post actions
    • Data in transit or at rest can be encrypted
    • S3 analytics analyze storage access patterns and transition the right data to right storage class
    • Size per object is from 0 Bytes to 5TB
    • Single put max size is 5GB
    • Use multi-part upload if object is larger than 100 MB
    • Can be accessed through virtual private cloud endpoints
    • Provides identity, access management policies, bucket policies and per-object access control lists for access control
    • Private by default
    • Use S3 analytic to identify optimal life-cycle policy
    • Move less access data to S3 standard-IA
    • Policy to monitor entire bucket, prefix or object tag
  3. S3 storage classes
    • Standard
    • Frequently accessed data
    • Store data in minimum of three AZs * Standard-IA
    • Less frequently accessed data but requires rapid access when needed
    • Store data in minimum of three AZs * One zone-IA
    • Same as Standard-IA but store data in single AZ * Glacier
    • Store data in minimum of three AZs * Support cross-region replication, if enabled * Encryption needs to enable manually
    • Encrypted with server-side Encryption (SSE-S3)
    • Encrypted each object with a unique key
    • Encrytion key is encrypted with master key which regularly rotates
    • Use AES-256 (Advanced Encryption Standard) to encrypt data * KMS-Key Management System
    • Use customer master keys (CMKs) to encrypt S3 objects
    • SSE-C (customer-provided server-side Encryption) allow user to use own encryption key. S3 does the encryption and decryption
  4. S3 Cost
    • Pay for
    • GBs per month, number and size of objects stored
    • Transfer out to other regions
    • PUT, COPY, POST, LIST, GET requests * Not pay for
    • Transfer in to S3
    • Transfer out to cloudfront or EC2 in the same region
  5. S3 Pricing
    • Standard Storage
    • Eleven 9s durability
    • 99.99% availability * Standard-Infrequent Access (SIA)
    • Eleven 9s durability
    • 99.9% availability * Get charges at different rate than other requests such as PUT and COPY

EFS-Elastic File System

  1. EFS preview
    • Fully managed service
    • Deployed to VPC, then select subnets
    • Access by public internet
    • FW need to open tcp port 2049 (NFSv4, version 4.0 and 4.1)
    • Need to allow tcp 2049 port bi-direction between EC2 and EFS
    • Shared storage
    • Elastic capacity
    • Accessed by region, across-AZs
    • Need to create mount target for EC2s to mount
  2. EFS resources
    • In EFS, file system is the primary resource
    • ID
    • Creation token
    • Creation time
    • File system size in bytes
    • Number of mount targets created for the file system
    • File system state * Mount target
    • Mount target ID
    • Subnet ID belonged to
    • File system ID belonged to
    • IP address of the file system to be mounted
    • Mount target state


  1. Glacier Preview
    • Data archiving service
    • Eleven 9s durability
    • Support SSL/TLS encryption of data in transit and at rest
    • Use vault lock to forbidden vault alter
  2. Glacier
    • Object Storage
    • Replicate automatic to AZs
    • Data encrypted by default
    • Cost lower than S3
    • Hours to retrieve data when needed
    • Ideal for archiving
    • Archive
    • Objects stored, is the base unit
    • 1 byte to 40 terabytes
    • Has its unique ID and description * Vault
    • Specify vault name and region when creating
    • Container to store archives * Vault Access Policy
    • Authorization & authentication
    • One per vault * Vault lock
    • Prevent vault being altered
    • One per vault * Retrieving Data
    • Expedited
      • Within 1 ~ 5 minutes, highest cost
    • Standard
      • Within 3 ~ 5 hours
    • Bulk retrievals
      • within 5 ~ 12 hours, lowest cost * Console only provide few operations
    • Creating, deleting vaults
    • Creating, managing archive policy
    • Rest of operations are accessible by REST API, AWS Java or .NET SDKs
    • Able to archive data into Glacier using S3 lifecycle policies * Cost more to retrieve data from Glacier then S3
    • Cost per retrieved is higher than S3
    • Cost per GB retrieved is higher than S3 * Enable control access to data by using IAM * Pay for
    • Storage per GB
    • per upload (how exactly is charged)
    • Free tier for download, after that will occur cost
  3. Glacier Controls
    • Web console
    • Creating, deleting vaults
    • Managing archive policies * The rest controls need to be done by CLI or SDK or API
  4. Life Cycle
    • Can be set on per object or per bucket
  5. S3 VS Glacier
Data volumeNo limitNo limit
Average latencymsmin/hrs
Item size5 TB max40 TB max
Cost/GB per month$$$
Billed requestsPUT, COPY, POST, LIST, GETUPLOAD and retrieval
Retrieval pricing$ per request$$ per request and per GB
  1. Server-side encryption
    • Server-side encryption (SSE-S3)
    • Encrypt every object with unique key
    • encrypt unique key with master key
    • Master key rotate regularly * AWS key management service (AWS KMS)
    • Use customer’s master key (CMKs) to create encryption key
    • From KMS encryption keys section or in IAM or via AWS KMS APIs
    • Use encryption key to encrypt objects * Server-side encryption with customer provided encryption key (SSE-C)
    • Allow customer to set his own encryption keys
  2. Glacier Security
    • Control access with IAM
    • Encrypted objects with AES-256
    • Manages your keys for you

VPC-Virtual Private Cloud


  1. VPC
    • Allow customer to provision virtual private network within AWS cloud
    • Build on AWS global infrastructure of regions and AZ
    • Only live within a single region
    • Logically isolated virtual network, control of
    • IP address ranges
    • Subnet creation
    • Route table creation
    • Network gateways
    • Security settings * Biggest CIDR is /16 and smallest is /28 * You can define
    • IP address ranges
    • Subnet creation
    • Route table creation
    • Network gateways
    • security settings
  2. VPC deployment
    • Able to isolate subnet
    • Define access control list
    • Customizing routing table
    • VPC exists in all AZs of the region once created
  3. VPC Features
    • Define IP ranges for VPC
    • Divide VPC into subnets
    • Subnet must set IP range within VPC ip range created
    • Subnet must select AZ within the region
    • Public or private subnet can be created * NAT gatway can be EC2 instance or hosted service * By default, all subnets within a VPC can communicate with each other * VPC can span multiple AZs but subnet cannot
    • VPC exists in multiple AZs
    • Subnet exists only in particular AZ * Classific as public, private, vpn only * Default VPC has one public subnet in every AZ within region with netmask of /20
  4. VPC Address
    • Address can’t be changed after set
    • Biggest and smallest CIDR is /16 and /28
  5. VPC components
    • Subnets
    • Don’t span AZs
    • Classific as public, private, vpn only
    • Default VPC has one public subnet in every AZ within region with netmask of /20
    • First 4 and last IP, total of 5, are reserved by AWS * Route tables
    • Used to control traffic going out of the subnets
    • Each subnet must be associated with a route table and only a route table at one time
      * DHCP, two options
    • Domain-name-servers
    • domain-name * Security group
    • Virtual stateful firewall * ACLs-Network Access Control Lists
    • Control in and out traffic of one or more subnets, stateless * IGW-Internet Gateway
    • Allow internet access from VPC
    • horizontally scaled, redundant, and highly available * EIP-Elastic IP Address * ENI-Elastic Network Interface
    • Virtaul network interface can be attached to instance * Endpoints
    • Private direct connection between VPC and other AWS service * Peering
    • Allowing two VPCs to communicate * NAT-Network Address Translation (NAT Gateway OR NAT Instance)
    • Accepts, translates and forwards traffic within a private subnet
  6. VPC Connections
    • AWS hardware VPN
    • IPsec hardware VPN connection between VPC and your remote network * AWS direct connect
    • Dedicate private connection from your remote network to VPC * AWS VPN cloudhub
    • multiple aws hardsare vpns via your vpn to enable communicate between various remote networks * Software VPN
    • Connect your remote network by building VPN software on EC2

VPC Security Groups

  1. VPC securities
    • Routing table
    • Subnet - ACLs - stateless
      • Keeps track of the state of interaction
    • Isolating subnets
    • Security group - stateful
      • No information is retained by either sender or receiver
      • Request handled entirely base on the information comes with it


  1. CloudFront
    • CDN with both network and application level
    • Programmable
    • Set origin as S3 or ELB, only pay for storage, not data transferred between
  2. Cost estimation
    • Traffic distribution
    • pricing base on edge location where content is served * Request
    • Number and type of http/https requests made AND geographic region where the request is made * Data transfer out
    • Amount of data transfer out from edge location to client



  1. Currently Support
    • MySQL
    • Aurora
    • MsSQL
    • PostgreSQL
    • MariaDB
    • Oracle
  2. High availability with multiple AZs
    • Provide multi-AZ deployment
    • Generate standby copy in another AZ within same VPC
    • Synchronously replicate data from Standard to standby
    • Auto bring standby to become master when master failed
    • Application connect to RDS by DNS, so no interruption will occur
  3. Read replicas
    • Asynchronous replication
    • Promote to master if needed manually
    • Suitable for read heavy workloads
    • Offload read queries
    • Read replicas can be created in different region than master database
  4. When to use RDS
    • Massive read/write rates (150K write/second)
    • Sharding due to high data size or throughput demands
    • Simple GET/PUT requests and queries that NoSQL can handle
    • RDBMS customization
  5. Costs
    • Pay per hour
    • Pay by DB specs
    • Pay by purchase types (On demand, RI)
    • Pay by number of DBs (multiple DBs to handle peak loads)
    • Charge for terminated backup storage per GB/month
    • No charge for backup storage of active DB
    • Charge for additional backup storage to the provisioned storage at per GB/month
    • Number of input and output request made to database
    • Storage and I/O charges vary depending on single AZ or multiple AZs
    • Storage and I/O charges vary, depending on the number of Availability Zones you deploy to * Tired charges for outbound data transfer


  1. What is DynamoDB
    • virtually unlimited storage
    • May have differing attributes
    • Scalable read/write throughput
    • Store data across multiple facilities
    • Partition data and has table storage to meet workload automatically
    • No limitation on number of items per table
    • Items in same table may have different attributes
    • Auto scale storage to meeting heavier loading
    • Provision amount of read and write throughput you need for your table
    • storage table can scale automatically or manually with provision read/write throughput
  2. Core components
    • Tables
    • Collation of data * Items
    • Group of attributes that is uniquely identifiable among all of the other items * Attributes
    • Fundamental data element, something that does not need to be broken down any further * Partition key
    • Simple primary key, composed of one attribute called the partition key * Partition key & sort key
    • Also known as composite primary key which is composed of two attributes * Table data is partitioned and indexed by primary key * Find item by
    • Primary key
      • More efficient as table data are partitioned by primary key
    • Scan
      • Flexibility to locate item by other non-attributes
      • Less efficient as DB needs to scan all items in table to make your find
  3. Items in table must have a key
    • Single key
    • EX. GID, UID, etc * Compound key
    • EX. author + book title
  4. Overview
    • Run exclusively on SSDs
    • Support document and key-value store models
    • Global tables features replicates tables to your choice of regions automatically


  • Data warehouse service
  • Use for analytic application
  • Run complex analytic queries of structured data
  • Using sophisticated query optimization, columnar storage on high performance local disk
  • Massive parallel query execution
  1. Parallel processing
    • Work flow
    • Communicate between application and computer node
    • Develop execution plans to carry out DB operation
    • Separate the plan to elements and pass to computer nodes for execution
    • Computer send result back to leader node for aggregation after execution
  2. Automation and scaling
    • Scalability provided, adjust capacity manually
    • Data is encrypted by default both at rest and in transit
  3. Compatibility

  4. Use cases
    • Use for agility
    • Free from hardware and expertise problems with low cost
    • Free from DB admin works
    • Scalable SaaS
  5. Review
    • Scale with no down time by adding more nodes
    • Automatically adds nodes to cluster and redistributes data for max performance
    • Use columnar storage and massively parallel processing architecture
    • To parallelize and distribute data and queries across multiple nodes
    • Provide high performances consistently
    • Monitor and backup automatically
    • built in encryption, need to turn on manually


  • MySQL & PostgreSQL compatible relational DB
  • performance 5 times faster then MySQL
  • Drop in compatibility with MySQL 5.6 using Inno db storage engine
  • Integrates with db migration service and schema conversion tool
  1. High availability
    • High availability and resilient design over MySQL
    • Storing six copies across three AZs with continuous backups to S3
    • Up to fifteen read replicas can be configured
    • Design for instant crash recovery when primary DB is unhealthy
  2. Resilient design
    • Perform redo log on every read operation
    • Reduce restart time after db crash to less than 60 secs in most cases
    • Move buffer cache out of db process so is available right at restart time
    • Prevents you from having to throttle access until the cache is repopulated to avoid brownouts
  3. Review
    • High performance and scalability
    • Provide 5X throughput of MySQL and 3X throughput of PostgreSQL * High availability and durability
    • Provide 99.99% availability
    • Fault-tolerant and self-healing storage built for
    • Six replicas of data store across three AZs
    • And continuously backup to S3 * Multiple levels of security
    • Isolation by VPC
    • Encrypted at rest using keys you created and control by KMS
    • Encrypted in transit with SSL * Compatible with MySQL and PostgreSQL * Fully managed

AWS core services - ELB, CloudWatch & Auto Scaling


  • distributes incoming traffic across EC2, containers and IP addresses
  1. Types of ELB
    • ALB-Application
    • HTTP & HTTPS
    • Operate at layer 7
    • Support content-basing routing
    • Application in containers
    • Support websocket and http/2
    • additional visibility into health of target instance and container * NLB-Network
    • TCP
    • Operate at layer 4 * CLB-Classic
    • previous generation for HTTP, HTTPS & TCP
  2. ELB use cases
    • To secure access to web server through a single exposed point
    • Decouple environment using internet / intranet facing LB
    • Provide high availability and fault tolerance
    • Ability to distribute traffic across multiple AZs
    • Increase elasticity and scalability with minimal overhead
  3. ALB features
    • Path and host based routing
    • Support IPv6
    • Dynamic ports
    • Additional request protocols supported
    • Deleting protection and request tracking
    • Enhanced metrics and access logs
    • Targeted health checks
  4. ALB use cases
    • Ability to use container to host your micro services and route to applications
    • Allow you to route different request to same instance but differ the path based on the port
    • Set routing rules to distribute traffic to only the desired backend application if having different containers listening various ports
  5. NLB use cases
    • Optimized for sudden and volatile traffic patterns
    • Single static IP per AZ
    • Ultra-low latencies, ideal for application require extreme performance
  6. ELB monitoring
    • See HTTP responses
    • Number of healthy and unhealthy hosts
    • Filter metrics base on AZ or LB
  7. Review
    • LB is used to increase capacity and reliability of application
    • ALB - suitable for HTTP and HTTPS traffic and advanced routing function, including micro services and containers
    • NLB - suitable for TCP traffic where extreme performance is required
    • CLB - Across multiple EC2 and operating at request and connection level

CloudWatch (CW)

  1. What is CloudWatch?
    • Distributed statistics gathering system
    • Collect and track your metrics from your application
    • Can create your own metric
    • Enable you to track and monitor performance and health of resources and application
    • Use CW to collect and monitor log files from EC2, CloudTrail, R53 and others
    • Basic CW - free
    • Seven pre-selected metrics at five minutes interval
    • Three status check metrics at one minutes interval * Detailed CW - Paid
    • All metrics available to basic monitoring at one minutes interval
    • Allow data aggregation by EC2 AMI ID and instance type * Retain metrics for 15 months at no charge * CW support three retention schedules
    • 1 minute data points are available for 15 days
    • 5 minute data points are available for 63 days
    • 1 hour data points are available for 455 days
  2. CloudWatch terms
    • Three main components
    • Metric
    • Data point from monitored resources or applications. * Alarm
    • Send notification when tracked metric reach a specified value for a specified period of time
    • Sent by SMS, email(SES?), or notify auto scaling policy to take action * Event
    • Monitor resources and deliver near real time stream of events describe the changes in resources
    • Stream of resource changes can be sent to other AWS resources
  3. CloudWatch Actions
    • Stop, terminate, reboot, recover an instance
    • Scale and auto scaling group in or out
    • Send message to SNS topic

Auto Scaling

  1. What is scaling?
    • Scaling plans for
    • EC2 instances and spot fleets
    • DynamoDB tables
    • DynamoDB tables and indexes
    • Aurora replicas
  2. Scaling
    • Scaling in or out on specified conditions
    • Register new instances to LB automatically when specified
    • Can launch across AZs
  3. Auto Scaling Components
    • Launch Configuration (What)
    • AMI
    • Instance type
    • Security groups
    • Roles * Auto Scaling Group (Where)
    • VPC and subnets
    • LB
    • Min instances
    • Max instances
    • Desired capacity
      • Number of instances you wish to start with * Auto Scaling Policy (When)
    • Scheduled
    • Conditioned
    • On demand
    • Scale out policy
    • Scale in policy * Steps
    • First, create a launch configuration
    • Next, create an automatic scaling group
    • Then define at least one automatic scaling policy
This post is licensed under CC BY 4.0 by the author.